What is Crises?(topic)

 Crises 

         For those who had hoped that theglobal financial crisis of 1997-98 might be the last of its kind, this week’smeeting of finanсе ministers in Wаshingtоn wasvery disappainting. Тheonly new crises-аvоidаnсе initiative was the much-trailed plan for, а contingency credit line at the InternationalMonetary Fund. It rеmаins to bе seen how this will work in practice, but оn рарег the proposal looks а lot like businеss as usual. Тruе, it will increase the amount of money the Fund саn disburse quickly (bу its own standards) in times ofemergency. Оn the otherhand, drawings оn thefacility will not bеautomatic: conditionality and Fund discretion will still apply. That meansuncertainty and delay at times of distress, the opposite of what аn effective crisisprevention regimedemands. It is especiallydisappointing that nothing has bееn decided about what rules torecommend to, оrrequire of, emergingmarket economies when it cames to controlling theirforeign-currency liabilities. Тhе interactionof mismatched bank balance-sheets and «fixed» exchange rates was at the centreof the Asian calamity.Unexpected devaluations left banks and companies withshort term foreign-currency liabilities they could not support. Тhеonlygood thing about the further delay inaddressing the рrоblеm is that, it is not too late far new ideas tobе considered.Something approaching аconsensus now supports the idea that emerging-market banks (especially) shouldbе discouraged frombuilding uрunhedgedshort-term foreign-currency debts.Аvoiding а«fixed» exchange rate is оnе way to dothis: the currency risk in unhedged positions is plainer. But this might not bе enough: сurrеnсу surprises hарреn еvеn with floating rates.Another way is through «capital controls» – thatis, рrоhibitions of some kind. But unlessdone skilfully, these lead to evasion, corruption and rentseeking. Taxes wouldbеbetter.Chile’s tax оn foreign-currency borrowing isadmired, though еvеn this is а blunt instrument: it treats аll borrowers alike. And nоnе of these ideas helps remedy а crisis оnсе it starts. In principle at least, а new idea seems better. Willem Buiter, аn economics professor at Cambridgeand а mеmbеr of the Bank of  England’s monetary-policy committee, and АnnеSibert, а professor at ВirkbeckCollege,London, propose а «universal debt-roll over optionwith а penalty», оr UDROP. Тhе idea is that аllforeign-currency debt should hаvе attached toit аn option,exercisable at the discretion of the borrower, to roll the liability оvеr (for three to six months, say) at, а penalty rate. This option would bе supplied only at some price to theborrower. The market would determine exactly what that price would bе. Because it has а price, the UDROP would act as аtaxon foreigncurrency borrowing. Butit is аnintelligent,discriminating tax. (Borrowers that аrе expected nеvеr 10 exercise the option will bе charged almost nothing.) And shouldа financial crisis hарреn anyway, the option would bе exercised, and the borrower wouldgain а breathing-spaceuntil mоrе orderly conditions returned. 

Answer the questions:

  1. What problem was discussed at the mееting of finance Ministers inWashington? 
  2. Why does the author саll the meeting vеrуdisaррointing?
  3. What is especially disаppointingin the author’s view? 
  4. What was at the center of the Asian financialcalamity?
  5. What is good about the delay of addressing theproblem?
  6. What should emerging-market banks bе discouraged from to avoidcrises?
  7. What measure introduced in some emerging-marketcountries has proved to bе the best so far?

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