Key factors influencing the formation of dialect speech
history of developmentof any language is closely connected with history of development of the peoplespeaking in this language. Therefore to study formation and development of thisor that language it is impossible in a separation from deep studying of historyof the state and the people. In this regard, the history of English can bedivided into three periods: Old English, Middle English, new English, but V. D.Arakin allocates one more – the most ancient.of English language history by V.D. Arakin:
. The most ancientperiod – the period dated by time between the first centuries AD of theVII-VIII centuries. It is the period of language existence of Old Englishtribes which lay down then in a basis of an English nationality. Theselanguages possessed a number of qualitative signs which, however, can berestored only thanks to comparative-historical research as written monuments ofthis period we didn’t reach;
. The Old English period(Anglo-Saxon) – VII-XI centuries, since invasion of the German tribes to theBritish Isles to a gain of Britain Normans (Normans) in 1066; it is the periodof language of a developing English nationality;
. Middle English period– the period dated by time of wars of the XI-XV centuries, to feudal Scarletand a White Rose (1455-1485) and publishing introductions in England (1477). Itis the period of language of the developed English nationality which isgradually developing into the nation.
. The new English period– the period since the end of the XV century up to now, is subdivided into twoperiods: а) early new English – the period of formation of national languagenorms and) late new English – the period of the developed national languagenorms.period of English language is characterized by certain, peculiar linesfor it. In other words, language changed in time. Precisely as well dialectsduring the different periods changed, passed a certain evolution. [1; 253]- aversion of language which is used as a means of communication by the peopletied among them by one territory. According to V.M. Zhirmunskii, “thedialect represents unity not primordially this, but developed historically inthe course of socially caused interaction with other dialects of publiclanguage, as result not only differentiations, but also integration: unitydeveloping, dynamic as character of isoglosses of the language card which isvisually reflecting communication stories of language with history of thepeople testifies to that”. The dialect can differ from other dialects ofthe same language with features of any part of linguistic structure –morphology, phonetics, lexicon or syntax. [3; 23]mainreason for emergence of dialect distinctions is weakening of communications andrelative isolation of various groups of a linguistic community. As languagerepresents the phenomenon historically changing, in its various innovationswhich, having arisen originally in one place constantly arise, then graduallyextend. As a rule, however, a little close connection between members of alinguistic community is at a loss.synchronous condition of phonetic system ofmodern English dialects is directly caused by specifics of its historical developmentin this or that area, mutual contacts of dialects, influence of languagesamples of the won language or absence of such influence. If in someterritories (especially southern) the pronunciation of a number of sounds andsound combinations coincides with a literary standard (the last to some extentgot into all dialects), in other areas it is possible to note considerabledivergences in comparison with national language – a pronunciation of separatesounds in English dialects in some cases not only differs from literary, butalso is differentiated in separate territories.main phonetic differences ofdialects from a literary standard are consisted both in quantitativecharacteristics, and in quality indicators of separate sounds. For dialects thepronunciation of those sounds which in literary option aren’t said at all isvery characteristic. On the other hand, many sounds said in literary option, indialects fall. Use of parasitic sounds in a word, dissimilation is alsocharacteristic.there is no dialect which would have parallel differences as inthe field of phonetics as in grammar. The grammatical and phonetic divergenceof local language systems has cross character more often. So, if to presentthat any language has four dialects a, b, c, d, it is not obligatory,that the dialect a differed from any other dialect both at level ofphonetics and at grammar level. On the contrary, the dialect a can havedivergences of a phonetic order and full grammatical similarity to a dialect bor to any other dialect. In the same way grammatical distinction isn’t surelyaccompanied by phonetic distinction. Therefore classification can be more orless satisfactory if it is under construction on a basis either phonetic(phonologic), or grammatical criteria. Phonetic change cannot be accompanied bychange in area of a grammatical system of language and on the contrary. In thesame way changes in area of syntax can be made regardless of the fact thatoccurs in other areas of language.language mixture of two closely relateddialects or languages observed gluing in elements of grammatical system of onelanguage or a dialect in grammatical system of other language or a dialect.ofdialect lexicon in language are various. So, in the sphere of oralcommunication in this or that territory they still remain one of means ofcommunication. In written forms of language (for example, regional newspapers)some dialects help local readers to call separate subjects, the phenomena,processes.fiction language dialects are used for the image of localgeographical features, specifics of a life, culture. They help to characterizeheroes more brightly, to transfer identity of their speech, and sometimes servealso as means of satirical coloring.use of dialectal words in fiction language,in newspaper speech – is one of the ways of their penetration into the literarylanguage.lexical dialects scientists allocate three groups:
. Actually lexical.Words which coincide with common-literary on value are called as actuallylexical dialecticisms, but differ the sound complex. They call the sameconcepts, as words of the literary language identical to them, which is somekind of synonyms to words of the literary language.
. Lexico-semantic. Thewords coinciding in writing and a pronunciation with literary, but differentfrom them by the value are called as lexico-semantic dialecticisms.
. Ethnographic. Wordswhich are also widespread only in a certain dialect are called as ethnographicdialecticisms and reflect local features of labor activity, of life and soon.the bulk dialectal words are not a component of common-literary lexicon. Butthrough informal conversation (especially through popular speech) dialecticismsget into the literary language.