Classification of the modern territorial dialects
Classification of themodern territorial dialects
of modern Englishregional dialects presents serious difficulties, since their boundaries arecharacterized by a large fluctuation, and locales are increasingly invading thearea of distribution of dialectal speech. One of the most serious effort wasundertaken by Ellis. [4; 86] Although this classification is not withoutdrawbacks, it is generally quite accurately reflects the dialect map of modernBritain and adopted as the basis of many dialects. In general, based on thescheme Ellisa A., modern English dialects can be classified as follows:
|Northern dialects||1) Northumberland, North Durham; 2) Southern Durham, most of Cumberland, Westmorland, North Lancashire, hilly part of the West Riding of Yorkshire; 3) East Riding and North Riding of Yorkshire.|
|Medium dialects||1) Lincolnshire; 2) south-east Lancashire, sowing – East Cheshire, northern West Darbyshire; 3) northern-west Lancashire, southern, Ribble; 4) the average Lancashire, Isle of Man; 5) South Yorkshire; 6) most of Cheshire, North Staffordshire; 7) most of Darbyshire; 8) Nottinghamshire; 9) Flint and Denbigh; 10) east Shropshire, South Staffordshire, much of Warwickshire, South Darbyshire, Leicestershire.|
|Eastern dialects||1) Cambridgeshire, Rutland, North – East Northamptonshire; 2) most of Essex, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire middle part; 3) Norfolk and Suffolk; 4) most of Buckinghamshire; 5) Middlesex, South East Buckinghamshire, South Hertfordshire, South-West Essex.|
|Western dialects||1) the west and south Shropshire (to the west of the River Severn); 2) Herefordshire, except eastern part, Radnor, eastern Breknoka.|
|Southern dialects||1) part of the Pembrokeshire and Glamorganshire; 2) Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, northern and eastern part of the county Somersetshire, most of Gloucestershire, south-west of Devonshire; 3) a large part of the county Hampshire, Isle of Wight, the majority of Berkshire, southern part of Sussex, app. part of Sussex; 4) sowing. Gloucestershire east. Herefordshire, Worcestershire, southern part of the county of Warwickshire, North Oxfordshire, South-West Northamptonshire; 5) most of Oxfordshire; 6) north of Surrey, north-west of Kent, 7) most of the counties of Kent, East Sussex; 8) West Somersetshire, northern-east Devonshire; 9) East Cornwall, most of Devonshire; 10) West Cornwall.|
of the main features ofcontemporary British regional dialects (and dialects of other languages) istheir conservatism.or other deviations from the literary standard due mostlynot evolution, namely the lack of evolution: the dialects are still manylanguage phenomena of different periods in the history of language, as well asvarious foreign-language bedding – Scandinavian, Norman, etc.feature of modernEnglish dialects is their variability at all language levels (phonetics, grammarand vocabulary in particular).authors also point to the fact that thecharacteristic feature of a system of dialects so-called“redundancy”. Have in mind, for example, such speed, used in Irelandas: It’s sorry you will be instead of “You will be sorry” orparaphrases like “I do love” instead of “I love”, used inthe south-western counties, piling negatives in a phrase, etc.already mentionedabove, the dialect – is a territorial or social dialect (language variants,used by one or another social group, or a group of people).dialects include anumber of functionally and structurally different phenomena:
. Professional dialects– kind of social dialect, uniting people of one profession or one occupation.Slang (slang), dialects, consisting of more or less randomly chosen, modify andcombine the elements of one or more natural languages and used (usually in oralcommunication) a particular social group to linguistic isolation, separationfrom the rest of the language community, sometimes as secret languages.may benoted such varieties of English slang, as:) the “reverse slang”: forexample, yob instead boy;) “central Slang”: for example, ilkeminstead of milk;) “rhyming slang”: for example, artful dodger insteadlodger;) the so-called “medical Greek”: for example, douse-hoginstead of house-dog.these types of slang are used to make language of acertain social group unclear for the uninitiated. With jargon is not specificdistortion of existing words in the language, but also the numerous borrowings,the appearance of which is often modified so that they do not differ from theremaining words of the language.specialized nature of the jargon can beillustrated on the material of the vocabulary typical of various educationalinstitutions: beyond the institutions specified vocabulary either not used orused in a different sense. For example, at Eton, the following jargon: scug“scrub”, “scoundrel”,tug “college student”, inWestminster School: bag “milk”, beggar “sugar”, in Winchester College: to go continent “stay home”, tug “tasteless”, stale “normal, simple”.
As rightly pointed outby Professor R.A Budagov, “public nature of language determines not onlythe conditions of his existence, but all of its features, especially itsvocabulary and phraseology, grammar and style”. [2; 210]
. A special positionamong the social dialects of English is so-called slang. Under this concept isoften summed up the most diverse phenomena of lexical and stylistic plan.Leading researcher English slang E. Partridge and his followers define slang asprevalent in the field of spoken very fragile, unstable, not codified, andoften does erratic and random set of tokens that reflect social consciousnessof people belonging to a particular social or professional environment. Slangis seen as a conscious, deliberate use of elements of common-literaryvocabulary in spoken language in a purely stylistic purposes: to create theeffect of novelty, unusual, different from the approved model, to transfercertain mood of the speaker, to give a concrete utterance, liveliness,expressiveness, precision, and, to avoid cliches. This is achieved, accordingto researchers, the use of such stylistic means as a metaphor (as Chesterton: “All slang is metaphor”), metonymy, synecdoche, litotes,euphemism.and literary standard (exemplary, normalized language, rules whichare perceived as “right” and generally binding and which is opposedto dialects and colloquialisms) is inextricably linked not only because itappears dialect based on the standard, but also because, as a rule, locale isformed on the basis of dialect speech. Literary standard of English is noexception: in the 15th century. Britain abounded presence of many differentdialects, to the extent that, as the inflow of population from the countrysideto the city, these dialects are more and more confused and as a result formedlocale (can you say that, initially, it was a form of London south-easterndialect). Over time, this language was improved and was recognized as thelanguage that is spoken by the educated part of the population.it would bewrong to assume that the standard – is recorded form of pronunciation, which isnot subject to change. The natural evolution of the language, as well asvarious extra linguistic factors lead to change and literary standard (but theprocess of change is very slow). Certain rules of language out of use andreplaced by new ones because of the disappearance of one reality and theappearance of others.degree of deviation from the standard dialect speechstandard is determined by several factors: the history and development ofdialect, socio-economic structure of society, etc. In many cases, you can findthe dialect speech language rules that are already out of use in the locale.